Choose a global health issue. For this assignment, you will introduce the health issue and discuss the interventions necessary to prevent the issue and promote health.
Some topics to consider may include:
- Clostridium botulinum infection
Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus
- Ebola virus disease
- Human immunodeficiency virus disease
Severe respiratory distress syndrome
- Small pox
Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus infection
- West Nile virus
Include the following in your paper:
- Introduction/overview of the health issue and the prevalence in the United States and worldwide
Signs and symptoms
- Diagnostic tests (if applicable)
Advanced practice nursing role and management strategies
Medical/pharmacological management (if applicable)
Expert Solution Preview
In this assignment, we will focus on the global health issue of tuberculosis (TB). TB is a highly contagious bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily affects the lungs but can also impact other parts of the body. TB remains a major public health concern worldwide, with approximately 10 million new cases and 1.5 million deaths reported each year. This assignment will discuss the interventions necessary to prevent TB and promote health.
1. Introduction/overview of the health issue and prevalence in the United States and worldwide:
Tuberculosis is a major global health issue, especially in developing countries with limited healthcare resources. The prevalence of TB varies across different regions, with the highest burden observed in Asia and Africa. In the United States, the incidence of TB has been declining over the years, but it remains a concern, particularly among certain populations like immigrants, homeless individuals, and those with compromised immune systems.
2. Contributing factors:
Several factors contribute to the spread and persistence of tuberculosis. These include inadequate access to healthcare, poverty, overcrowding, malnutrition, and limited awareness about the disease. Additionally, immunosuppressive conditions such as HIV/AIDS significantly increase the risk of TB infection.
3. Prevention strategies:
Prevention of TB involves a multi-faceted approach. It includes early identification and treatment of active cases, as well as measures to prevent the transmission of the bacteria. Vaccination with the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is used in some countries to reduce the risk of severe forms of TB in children. Infection control practices, such as proper ventilation, respiratory hygiene, and use of personal protective equipment (PPE), are crucial in healthcare settings. Education campaigns aimed at raising awareness about TB symptoms, transmission, and treatment adherence also play a significant role in prevention.
4. Signs and symptoms:
The signs and symptoms of tuberculosis mainly affect the respiratory system. They include persistent cough (more than two weeks), chest pain, bloody sputum, fatigue, weight loss, fever, and night sweats. In some cases, TB can affect other organs, leading to symptoms related to those specific organs.
Diagnosis of TB involves various tests, including tuberculin skin tests, blood tests (interferon-gamma release assays), chest X-rays, sputum cultures, and molecular tests like polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These tests help confirm the presence of TB infection and guide appropriate management.
5. Advanced practice nursing role and management strategies:
Advanced practice nurses (APNs) have a crucial role in the management of tuberculosis. They play a vital role in identifying and assessing individuals at risk, conducting thorough physical examinations, and interpreting diagnostic tests. APNs collaborate with healthcare teams in implementing treatment plans, monitoring treatment response, managing complications, and providing patient education to enhance treatment adherence.
6. Medical/pharmacological management:
The medical management of tuberculosis primarily involves the administration of anti-tuberculosis medications. Standard treatment regimens consist of a combination of drugs for an extended period (usually 6-9 months) to ensure complete eradication of the bacteria and prevent the development of drug resistance. Directly Observed Therapy (DOT) is an essential strategy to ensure treatment adherence and reduce the risk of treatment failure. APNs play a significant role in monitoring medication efficacy, managing potential drug side effects, and facilitating medication compliance.
7. Follow-up care:
Follow-up care is essential to ensure treatment success and prevent relapse. APNs play a pivotal role in monitoring patients’ progress, assessing treatment response, and addressing any ongoing health concerns. Regular follow-up visits, sputum testing, and chest imaging are conducted to evaluate treatment efficacy and detect any recurrence or drug resistance.
Tuberculosis is a significant global health issue that requires comprehensive interventions to prevent its spread and promote health. By implementing preventive measures, raising awareness, and ensuring early diagnosis and effective treatment, we can aim to reduce the burden of tuberculosis and improve the overall health outcomes for individuals and communities affected by this disease.